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Pages

Pages are the basis for the user interface. Pages hold text, images, or controls that display information that the application needs to publish and interact with the application data through visual elements.

Defining pages

Taipy lets you create as many pages as you want, with whatever content you need. Pages are created using sub-classes of the (taipy.gui.page.Page) class which convert some text (inside the application code or from an external file) into HTML content sent and rendered on the client device.

Converting text into page content is done according to these steps:

  • The text is parsed to locate the Taipy-specific constructs. These constructs let you insert visual elements that can be controls or blocks. Visual Elements result in the creation of potentially complex HTML components;

  • Visual element properties are read, and Taipy binds the application variables that are used, if any;

  • Potentially, callbacks are located and connected from the rendered page back to the Python code in order to watch user events (the notion of callbacks is detailed in the section Callbacks).

Defining the page content

Page content is defined by a regular string, containing text in one of two syntaxes:

  • Markdown: a lightweight markup language widely used for creating documentation pages. This would be the ideal format if you are not familiar with Web page definition, and would like to create a good visual rendering quickly.
    Taipy has an augmented implementation of Markdown that makes it simple to organize the page content in sections or grids.

  • HTML: if you are more experienced in developing Web user interfaces, you may prefer to use raw HTML content, so you have all the power of the HTML grammar to organize your page content.

Using Markdown

One of the page description formats is the Markdown markup language.

Taipy uses Python Markdown to translate Markdown text to Web pages. Many language extensions are used to make it easier to create nice looking pages that users can enjoy. Specifically, Taipy uses the following Markdown extensions: Admonition, Attribute Lists, Fenced Code Blocks, Meta-Data, Markdown in HTML, Sane Lists and Tables. Please refer to the Python Markdown package documentation to get information on how to use these.

Creating a page that display HTML content is straightforward:

from taipy.gui import Markdown

md_page = Markdown("""
# Page title

Any [_Markdown_](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markdown) content can be used here.
""")

You then have, in the md_page variable, the definition of a page whose content is defined by Markdown text.

Markdown link syntax

You can use Markdown's native link syntax to easily create links from one page to another.

If, for example, your application has two pages (see below how to create such an application, where pages would be called "page1" and "page2"), you can create a link to "page2" from "page1" by adding the following Markdown fragment in the definition of "page1":

...
Go to [Second Page](/page2) for more information.
...

Besides the extensions listed above, Taipy adds its own extension that can parse Taipy-specific constructs that allow for defining visual elements (and all the properties they need). The details on how visual elements are located and interpreted with Markdown content can be found in the Markdown Syntax section about Visual Elements definition.

Using HTML

HTML can also be used as the text grammar for creating pages. You don't need to create the header and body part: Taipy takes care of this for you.

Creating a page that displays HTML content is straightforward:

from taipy.gui import Html

html_page = Html("""
<h1>Page title</h1>

Any <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML"><i>HTML</i></a>
content can be used here.
""")

You then have, in the html_page variable, the definition of a page whose content is defined from HTML text.

Taipy identifies visual element definitions by finding tags that belong to the taipy namespace. You can find details on how to create visual elements using HTML in the HTML Syntax section about Visual Elements definition.

Registering the page

Once you have created an instance of a page renderer for a specific piece of text, you can register that page to the taipy.gui.Gui instance used by your application.

The taipy.gui.Gui constructor can accept the raw content of a page as Markdown text and creates a new page for you. That would be the easier way to create applications that have a single page. Here is how you can create and register a page in a Taipy application:

from taipy import Gui

Gui("# This is my page title")
If you run this Python script and connect a browser to the Web server address (usually localhost:5000), you can see your title displayed in a blank page.

Of course, the text can be stored in a Python variable and used in the taipy.gui.Gui constructor:

...
md = "# This is my page title"
Gui(md)

If your application has several pages, you add your pages one by one using Gui.add_page(). To add multiple pages in a single call, you will use Gui.add_pages() or create the taipy.gui.Gui instance using the pages argument. In those situations, you have to create a Python dictionary that associates a page with its name:

...
pages = {
  'page1': Markdown("# My first page"),
  'page2': Markdown("# My second page")
}
Gui(pages=pages)

In this situation, to see the pages in your browser, the address you will use will be localhost:5000/page1 or localhost:5000/page2.

Viewing the page

When the user browser connects to the Web server, requesting the indicated page, the rendering takes place (involving the retrieval of the application variable values), so you can see your application's state and interact with it.

Root page

The Root page is the page located at the top of the Web application. The name of this page is "/".

If your application uses only one page, this is typically where it would be created:

  Gui(page="# Page Content")
creates a page from the Markdown content that you provide and adds this page to the new Gui instance with the name "/". This makes it straightforward to watch your application run by pointing a Web browser to the root of the Web server address (by default, that would be http://127.0.0.1:5000/).

Single-page applications

If your application has several pages, you would usually create them with different names, so the user can navigate from page to page (using the taipy.gui.navigate() function or the navbar control).
However, you can still have a root page for your application (with the name: "/"). In this situation, Taipy creates a single-page application (SPA) for you.

Modern Web applications use this SPA technique: instead of reloading the entire page, some processing is performed behind the scene to generate the page that should be displayed, transforming the currently shown page. This allows for smoother transitions from page to page and feels like the application was natively developed for your runtime environment.
Although technically, every Taipy Web application is a SPA, this notion makes sense only when using several pages.

If your Taipy application has defined a root page, then the content of this page is generated before the content of the page you need to display. This makes it very easy to design an application with the same header (such as a banner and a navigation bar) for all its pages.

Example

Here is an example of a Taipy application that holds several pages:

   from taipy import Gui

   root_md="# Multi-page application"
   page1_md="## This is page 1"
   page2_md="## This is page 2"

   pages = {
     "/": root_md,
     "page1": page1_md,
     "page2": page2_md
   }
   Gui(pages=pages).run()
When you run this application and display the page at http://127.0.0.1:5000/, you will notice that the browser navigates to the page /page1, and that the final result is a page that contains the content of the root page, followed by what is defined in the page "page1".
In this example, you will see both the main title ('Multi-page application') and the sub-title ('This is page 1').

If you navigate to '/page2', the main title remains on the page, and the sub-title is replaced by the text 'This is page 2'

The <|content|> pseudo-control

Your application may also need to hold a footer on all the pages it uses.
You can use the pseudo-control <|content|> to achieve the expected result: this visual element is not really a control: It is a placeholder for page content, used in the root page of your application, and is replaced by the target page content when the application runs.

Example

   from taipy import Gui

   root_md="""
   # Multi-page application

   <|content|>

   This application was created with [Taipy](http://taipy.avaiga.com).
   """
   page1_md="## This is page 1"
   page2_md="## This is page 2"

   pages = {
     "/": root_md,
     "page1": page1_md,
     "page2": page2_md
   }
   Gui(pages=pages).run()
This application does the same as in the previous example, except that you now have the footer line ('This application was created...') in all the pages of your application.

Dialogs

Applications sometimes need to prompt the user to indicate a situation or request input of some sort. Dialogs are forms that can be displayed on top of the page the user is looking at, prompting for some input.

To create a dialog, you will use a dialog control in your page. The dialog holds a page content or a Partial (see Partials).

You can control whether the dialog is visible or not, and what to do when the end-user presses the Validate or Cancel button, so your application can deal with the user's response.

Example

Here is an example of how you would create a dialog, directly in your Markdown content:

   ...
   page="""
   ...
   <|{dialog_is_visible}|dialog|
   Enter a name:

   <|{name}|input|>
   |>
   ...
   """

   Gui(page).run()

Please refer to the documentation page on the dialog control for more details and examples.

Partials

There are page fragments that you may want to repeat on different pages. In that situation, you will want to use the Partial concept: a Partial is similar to a page (and built in a very similar way) that can be used multiple times in different visual elements. This prevents you from having to repeat yourself when creating your user interfaces.

To create a Partial, you must call the method add_partial() on the Gui instance of your application. You must give this function a page definition (a string or an instance of taipy.gui.Markdown or taipy.gui.Html), and it returns an instance of taipy.gui.partial.Partial that can be used in visual elements that use them.

Example

Here is an example of how you would create a taipy.gui.partial.Partial, in the situation where the dialog created in the example above would be needed in different pages:

   ...
   gui = Gui()
   prompt_user = gui.add_partial(
     """
     Enter a name:

     <|{name}|input|>
     """
   )
   gui.run()

You can take a look at the documentation of the dialog or pane to see how these Partials can be used in pages.

Panes

Modern user interfaces also provide small pages that pop out and be removed for temporary use, such as providing specific parameters for the application. Taipy lets you create such elements using the pane block.

A pane can appear from any border of your page, next to or on top of the page, and disappears when the user clicks outside its area.

A pane can be defined using the taipy.gui.partial.Partial class, or directly in the page definition.

Local resources

Pages sometimes need to access local resources from a page. That is the case for example if an image needs to be inserted: the path to the image must be provided.

You can indicate, using the parameter path_mapping of the Gui constructor, where those resources are located on the file system.